Man is a biological and social being; and in addition to the factor of social self-organization, the biological environment also has had a critical impact on the formation of his spiritual and contemplantive inner world over thousands of years (1). All factors of biocenosis, with which man is related genetically as a system, and the factors of biotope have perhaps maximally contributed to the development of the modern human.
Each achievement of an individual, being accepted or rejected by public groups, nonetheless becomes the property of the society. The achievements of intellectual and spiritual values have been polished, enriched, developed thus obtaining new qualities and becoming the corner stone of the value system of the spiritual concept of the public consciousness. Taking roots in the public consciousness, contemplative spiritual fundamentals have slowly but firmly formed among large social groups a public opinion, speculativenes, and principles of world outlook that have eventually created a common culture (2,3). The public groups centralized around this common culture have been re-formed into a nation professing common religious, ethical, and aethetic values and principles.
The principles of initial world outlook are viable and, continuously existing in the developing folds of culture of a people; they continously direct future cultural developments.
During the entire pre-industrial period the situation was changing when people were leaving their initial habitat, the biotope. To adapt to new factors or to control them, there is the necessity of new approaches and principles, as a consequence of which, the culture of the people having left their native living environment is subject to changes – often very deep – as a result of which the preculture is just bearly blinking in the folds of the newly developed culture or almost disappears over time.
A nation having continously lived and developed in its own bio-environment has a quite different cultural status. Any newly formed culture that - from the first sight – has no connection with the previous one, nonetheless bears the deep seal of the pre-culture. Among peoples who have not abandoned their pre-culture and the bio-environment, some elements of the initial value system become transferable, being transformed within new expressive means, forms, and structures.
In the culture of peoples continously living in their own bio-environment, the initial values are inherited and are not lost.
The horns are curved and attached to the back; there are two crossing parts below the horns, under angle. All elements of the petroglyph are thoroughly carved accurate geometric figures.
Goat image with straight horizontal line joinig the legs in the lower part. In the middle of the upper part – a symbol of the Sun
A symbol with complicated outline; the cross-shaped image in its upper part could symbolize either the Tree of Life or the Sun. The fraction placed lower is a goat image that could also be a symbol of a temple. The two lowermost figures are probably pictographs or already formed hieroglyphs.
Putting together the above observations, we can claim that in all petroglyphs dot, circumsference, circle and straight, horizontal and bending lines (sections) are used.From the above statements it is obvious that all petroglyphs are strictly subject to definite geometrical rules from the standpoint of performance techniques. No voluntaristic figures and no creative abstractions characteristic for fine arts. No track of copying the external reality and natural subjects.
The Armenian petroglyphs are distinctive among the similar creations known to the world with this firm inner compositinal logic. All petroglyphs known in Europe, Africa, Asia, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia are creations that reflect the realities, items, subject of the external world – with differnet stylization, different ‘handwriting’.
Even Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas whose art is distinguished with pedantry, cold geographical ligic and mathematical estimation – did not provide the same systemized approach while sculpting or incising petroglyphs.
We can bring many examples to get convinced that among petroglyphs and frescos of prehistoric times known to the world, only petroglyphs found in the Armenia Highland are ambiguous, multilayer and are focused on an idiological frame, notwithstanding the aesthetical approaches and impressive means of images and panoramas.
Most probably the tasteful aesthetical performance of petroglyphs has confused the sientists of this field, the majority of whom - marking the artisitic performance of petroglyphs and failing to assess the idiological and semantic features – did not touch upon this critical and remarkable peculiarity.
The first example of protosumerian hieroglyphe(petroglyphe) in the caves on the moutain Ararat
- Thus we can claim that a considerable part of the petroglyphs of the Armenian Highland, even with the aesthetical and stylisitc qualities that they have, are idiological and semantic in their essence.
- It is possible that these particular approaches have opened a path for creating different Sumerian and Egyptian hieroglyph systems which occurred later.
- In a new spiritual environment, the developments of symbolic rock carvings of the Tree of Life, Man – Center of the Universe, and Goat the Lightbringer, eventually finds its logical solution in the perfect form of cross stones – khachkars.
Կարգ: Պատմություն | Ավելացրել է: ՄՀԷՐ (09-Սպտ-2011)
| Հեղինակ: Samvel M. Shahinyan